What is Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents a tiny in its size bacterium that belongs to the class Mollicutes. The organisms adherent to this class have a peculiar feature: they do not have a peptidoglycan cell wall that is common for all other firmicute bacteria. At the same time Mycoplasma pneumoniae possesses a three layer cell membrane that includes cholesterol compounds, resembling eukaryotic cells. Since the organisms do not have a cell wall, they are not prone to the influence of penicillins and other beta-lactam antibiotics that are known for their ability to damage and eliminate the bacterial cell wall.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is known for having one of the smallest genomes ever existed. Its genome includes only 816 kilobase pairs (kbs). There has been carried out comprehensive description of its genome and proteome. It is known that there is some unique genetic code it employs. This code turns out to have more in common with mitochondria than with other bacteria. There is no cellular machinery that could produce many vital compounds. It means that it represents an obligate parasite. There can be no mycoplasma that is free-living. From this point of view, mycoplasma is closer to viruses than to bacteria.

The spreading of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is carried out in a way of respiratory droplet transmission. When it gets stuck to the mucosa of a host organism, M. pneumonia begins to withdraw nutrients, gets larger and replicates with the help of binary fission. It usually sticks to the mucosa in the upper and lower respiratory tract. This leads to the development of such diseases as pharyngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia.

The type of infection that is brought about by this bacterium is called atypical pneumonia. This is due to the fact that it has a protracted course and does not produce sputum and causes a number of extra-pulmonary symptoms. As far as chronic mycoplasma infections are concerned, they have been linked to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatological diseases.

As of now, the results of researches conducted all over the world show that the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae could be considered to be reliable only when found together with bronchial wall thickening as well as centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. At the same time, these CT findings have not been detected in patients, who suffer from progressed severe pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

As effective means of treatment can serve second generation macrolide antibiotics and second generation quinolones. Severity of the disease caused by mycoplasma can range from mild to moderate.

How to treat infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

It is strange enough that in order to cure a mycoplasma infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae one should do it via his own immune response, particularly the complement system. It is known that B-lactam antibiotics are helpless and useless in this situation. It is connected with the fact that B-lactams, similar to penicillin, perform their actions only on the cell wall, which is absent in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. However, polyene antibiotics that help to combat cholesterols in the membrane of mycoplasma, can also prove effective in the fight against the plasma membrane of the host cells.

The complement system, we referred to above, represents a cascade of proteins that is usually presented in the tissue or the blood of a host. It is involved in antigen-antibody reactions that result in cell lysis.

Membrane attack complex that eradicates the bacteria can be carried out in four ways: through opsonization, cell lysis, inflammotary response and chemoattraction of neutrophils.

It is known that it is always better to prevent a disease than to cure it. Unfortunately, there is too little information about a mycoplasma infection prevention available so far. There is only one common sense thing that you can do. It is to wash your hands often and not to be in close contact with those who have the infection.

It is not necessarily that human hosts affected by Mycoplasma pneumoniae will cause pneumonia. But the virulence this bacterium possesses is connected with the lipid-associated membrane proteins that are on the cell surface. The specific polar tip organelles that is necessary for mediating stickiness to host cells is presented by an organized interaction between such elements as designated adhesions, interactive proteins and adherence-accessory proteins. When adhesions are gathered at the tip of the structure, this enables mycoplasma to settle in mucous membranes and eukaryotic cell surfaces. According to some research, particular mycoplasma species can be commensal to healthy people.

There is also an opinion that Mycoplasma pneumoniae is capable of serving as a medium for bringing other diseases as well into its immune response monopolization. There has been observed the emergence of other severe bacterial as well as viral infections in patients who have Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. It is supposed to be caused by the specific environment that can conducted to other organisms in one of the following ways: anatomically, physiologically, and/or immunologically. This will, in turn, lead to invasion and disruption of cells.


Mycoplasma pneumonia is a respiratory lung infection which is caused by a bacteria of the same name, Mycoplasma pneumoniae or M. pneumoniae. It is also recognized as atypical pneumonia or walking pneumonia.

This strain of pneumonia usually presents itself in people younger than 40 years of age. Some studies show that M. pneumoniae shows up in 20-50% of adult pneumonia cases and even more in the younger school age population. This infection is most common in summer and fall.

You can spread the mycoplasma germ through droplets from the nose and the throat and through the sneeze of an infected person. This does not happen immediately and is believed to need prolonged contact with these infected people. People that work or live in crowed environments are most at risk. This includes homeless shelters, factories, institutions and schools. The contagious period is believed to be 10-14 days. If you have been exposed to these bacteria, the symptoms will usually occur within 15-30 days. They will appear slowly over a 2-4 day period.

Some of the typical symptoms of mycoplasma. pneumonia are fever and cough, sore throat, tiredness, and headache quite often. Some less frequent symptoms that should not be taken lightly are ear and eye pain, lumps in the neck, rapid breathing and sometimes a skin rash. These symptoms generally last a week, but have been known to persist for a month.

If one is suspected of having this pneumonia, a cold agglutinins test is helpful and may be the only test that is required. But if this test is not definitive then a thorough medical evaluation will be done which includes a complete physical exam and chest x-rays. If satisfaction is not reached from these tests, a complete blood count (CBC), bronchoscopy, sputum culture and urine test may be ordered.

If you have been diagnosed with mycoplasma pneumonia, the chances that you will get it again are rare, but occasionally it does happen. It is nice to know though, that the symptoms are much milder the second time around.

The main treatment for mycoplasma pneumonia is antibiotics such as erythromycin, or clarithromycin. If the symptoms are mild, antibiotics may not be recommended. Home treatment of plenty of liquids, plenty of rest and a high protein diet may be all that is recommended for mild cases.

Most people recover completely from mycoplasma. pneumonia without antibiotics, but antibiotics speed up the process. At this time there is no known vaccine prevention for this pneumonia, so the best prevention would be to try to avoid people and situations where you know the problem may exist. As with many contagious illnesses, the elderly, people in poor health, and people with poor immune systems should avoid contact with known mycoplasma pneumonia carriers.

Bacterial Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is an infection which causes inflammation of the lungs. Although there are several types of pneumonia such as viral pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, the most common pneumonia is caused by a single celled organism, or bacteria, called streptococcus pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is easily contracted by the elderly whose immune systems are weakened due to age or disease. Pneumonia is also more common in babies under two, because their immune systems are still immature. Individuals with depressed immune systems due to serious illness, or those who are malnourished, are also at higher risk. Even the healthiest among us can contract bacterial pneumonia through our everyday contact with others.

Bacterial pneumonia, if left untreated can cause serious illness and death. The onset of symptoms can occur abruptly, often within hours of infection, and can lead to fever above 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Symptoms may include fatigue, shortness of breathe while resting, blueness of the skin, shaking or chills, fever, sweating, yellowish or greenish phlegm, and chest pain in either lung (lobe) where the infection has occurred. Other symptoms may include cough and even blood-stained sputum.

Individuals who suspect pneumonia should see a doctor immediately. The physician will most likely listen to their chest, and ask for an x-ray and samples of blood and phlegm to make a firm diagnosis of the type and cause of the pneumonia. If the doctor determines you have bacterial pneumonia, he will prescribe antibiotics orally, or by injection. It is important to follow through and to take the entire course of antibiotics prescribed. Depending upon the severity of your illness, he or she may ask you to recover at home for several weeks, or may admit you to a hospital if you have extreme breathlessness, or cyanosis (turning blue).

Bacteria is found everywhere – in the air we breathe, on surfaces we touch such as telephones and desktops – and it even lives in our digestive and respiratory tracts. A simple way to reduce our chance of infection is by washing our hands frequently throughout the day. Hands, wrists, and fingers, should be washed vigorously with warm water and regular soap for at least 20 seconds. Any alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wipe is effective in reducing germs if soap and water are not readily available.

Other precautions to avoid pneumonia include eating a nutritious diet to boost immune response, by taking restful sleep, and by exercising to improve lung function. It is a good idea to quit smoking. Those with COPD, asthma, or with compromised immune systems, should take extra precautions to avoid contact with those who have colds and flu, because bacterial pneumonia can easily follow a viral infection.

It is always a good idea to assist your natural defense mechanisms by taking good care of your health and by doing a few preventative measures to avoid becoming ill in the first place. The healthier you are, the better chance you have, of fighting off the bacterium which cause pneumonia.

Common facts about Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infectious disease. It spreads rapidly within a group, most certainly within school going children. The people in the peripheral of the infected person need to wash their hands when and as there is contact with the patient. Today, there are a number of vaccines available to prevent the onset and nip the infection at the very beginning.

The vaccine option is being tapped by people around the world to prevent the onslaught of Mycoplasma pneumonia. The vaccines are also administered at a later stage to people who are aged and/or have a very weak immune system. Mycoplasma pneumonia can also infect a person with a regular cough or a sneeze. The ailment does culminate in death, if the person suffering from the bacterial infection is not given the prescribed antibiotics in time and in the correct dosage.

Symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia are really very common. It starts with a bout of headaches accompanied by high temperature and shivers or chill. There is also profuse sweating and a shortness of breath observed. In some cases, nausea and cough with green sputum are also seen. The joints also get affected with Mycoplasma pneumonia and result in immobility and stiffness within the joints. People having low immunity levels contract the cause-organism within no time and also take a lot of time to respond to the antibiotic.

When there is an infected person in the peripheral, extra precautions need to be in place to avoid an epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumonia. The microorganism behind the cause can enter a healthy body through inhalation if the immune system is low. In the opposite case, if the immune system is healthy, then the system does fight back and respond to antibiotics. Mycoplasma pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines.

Although there is no specific climate condition identified for the infection to spread, summer time is believed to be the time when most people succumb to the organism. In some cases, laboratory tests are also conducted to identify the infection. The symptoms take about a week or so to manifest. However, once they do and the disease is confirmed, it is advisable to ensure that the proper treatment and antibiotics are administered in time.

The treatment therapy also includes walking a little, so as to not let the mucous settle within the lungs. With the right treatment and environment generated near and around the patient, Mycoplasma pneumonia can be defeated and health restored. There are a number of online as well as offline resources that enable access to the treatment options and dedicated research, 24×7.

A little research goes a long way in identifying the signs and symptoms early enough for treatment to offer respite. Mycoplasma pneumonia has been around quite a while and so has the treatment of the condition. Self medication is an absolute no-no in the case of this ailment. The immune system is already weakened and can do without neglect. Prevention is better than cure and hence, the onslaught needs to be identified with the first case in the vicinity.

Causes of Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a form of pneumonia which only affects humans. The infection grows within the respiratory system causing a lot of irritation. The bacteria causing this disease are called Mycoplasma pneumonia. This bacterium only attacks a certain age group, which is below forty years. School going kids are more prone to contracting this infection since the bacteria generally attacks and thrives in groups.

The regular and intimate interaction enables the bacteria to grow and infect easier and faster. Symptoms of this infection manifest within the first week or two. The symptoms are generally very mild and commonly mistaken as a general flu or a common cold. The chest infection is accompanied with a headache. Other symptoms include chest pain, high fever and a dry cough that causes the patient real discomfort. The fever in Mycoplasma pneumonia is usually high and accompanied with sweating and a sore throat.
In some cases, a rash appears on the skin and the patient suffers muscle ache, with stiffness in the joints. Some patients of Mycoplasma pneumonia also experience a lump like feeling in the throat. All these signs call for a complete check up and X rays to diagnose the disease well in time. In the year 1898, Mycoplasma pneumonia was first detected in cattle! Later on in 1938, scientists found out that the infection also thrives in the human body.

However, at that time the onslaught was rare in human beings. The peculiarity of this particular infection is that it thrives within interaction between people. In 1944 a scientist named Eaton discovered the agent of cause of the illness. The pleomorphic organism that causes Mycoplasma pneumonia does not have a cell wall. It is in direct contrast to other viruses. It can replicate without any definite host. The cough that accompanies Mycoplasma pneumonia is usually prolonged and spastic in nature.

The cause of the cough is the irritation caused by the movement of the bacteria within the ciliary organ. The motility rate of the organism is quite high. It has tips which are filamentous, allowing the organism to burrow into the cilia present in the epithelium of the respiratory organs. The organism has a dual property; first is resemblance to the components of the human respiratory system and the other, to generate hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide created is actually responsible for the irritation within the cells in the epithelial region of the respiratory tract. This also leads to damage of the erythrocyte membranes. Mycoplasma pneumonia has no affinity with an older age group, literally forty onwards. It is difficult for a person to fight this infection without taking medical help. Many a times, the body does not respond to antibiotics.

After a course of antibiotics, there may be relief, but only temporarily. However, soon fatigue sets in and the symptoms recur in a more elaborate form. The patient needs to drink at least six to eight glasses of water every six hours and is advised complete bed rest, till the symptoms abate and recovery is in sight.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Symptoms, Causes and Cure

Mycoplasma pneumonia is one type of atypical pneumonia that occurs in humans and causes immense irritation in the respiratory systems. It is caused by the bacteria M. pneumonia. This is a particular type of pneumonia that generally attacks as well as affects the people who are younger than the age of 40 that means that people who haven’t yet reached their forties are more prone to this kind of disease. Various studies have been undertaken by experts and all of which actually suggest that the aforementioned disease makes up about 15 to 50% of every case of pneumonia that occurs in adults and the school going age group is more vulnerable to this particular disease. There is a certain group of people who are primarily prone to this kind of disease and such a group includes the ones who are in a habit of living in areas that are usually crowded or there is a collection of several people. These places include schools as well as many homeless shelters. The people who are engaged in work or in some activities in such places are also prone to this type of pneumonia. There is however comfort in the fact that there might be a lot of people who catch the mycoplasma pneumonia has no fear of any identifiable factor of risks.

The symptoms of the Mycoplasma pneumonia are usually pretty much mild and these particular symptoms also appear through a period of one to three weeks. As has been mentioned before, the symptoms of this disease are usually mild but in some cases they just might become very severe in some of the people. Like all diseases this one also has no exception when it comes down to a case of many common symptoms. These symptoms usually include pain in the chest as well as chilly coughs and these are generally dry. Such coughs are not at all bloody and the person suffering from this disease also experiences excessive fever that is sure to make him or her sweat and this fever might be of high temperature as well. Other symptoms of the disease also include headache, a sore throat and a lot others. There are a few less commonly seen symptoms that happen in this disease that also include a certain ear pain or a pain in the eye. The person might just also experience a particular soreness along with vicious muscle aches not to mention stiffness in the joints. The person may also experience a lump in the neck as well as skin rash.

People with suspected cases of such pneumonia should go through a full medical evaluation that would include a thorough physical examination as well as an x-ray of the chest. This particular chest X-ray is done since a physical exam might not always be able to differentiate the pneumonia from the cases of an acute bronchitis as well as other forms of infections that affect the human respiratory systems. Antibiotics might just be prescribed by the doctors in case the symptoms become very severe.

How to Prevent Mycoplasma Pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the worst illness that many people throughout the world suffers from. It is very difficult for a person to fight this infection without going to see their local physician.

Antibiotics is generally one of the best was to cure this type of pneumonia. A prescribed medication works well on the younger people that have a healthy and stronger immune system then the elderly. Once a person has started the prescribed antibiotics you might see an improvement in your symptoms within a few days. The bacteria that are in your body could be resisting the antibiotics.

If you are suffering from mycoplasma pneumonia you might not see a recovery immediately. In some cases this type of infection the person might become fatigues even after they think that the infection itself has past over. Sometimes a person that has this infection does not even believe that they have pneumonia. They go undiagnosed and untreated. They tend to think that they just have a bad chest cold, and never seek medical attention.

Resting in bed is one of the best ways that a person can try to cure themselves from this sickness but you want to make sure that every so often that you get up and walk around so that it does not just settle in your chest causing you to become even worse. Drink plenty of liquids at least six to eight glasses to try and help keep the mucous thin so that it might be easier for you to cough up. Coughing should not be suppressed, because it is very important that you try to clear your lungs.

If you are around a person that is suffering from a case of mycoplasma pneumonia be sure that you wash your hands throughout the day frequently. Being in direct contact with the person that is exposed can cause you to become down with this infection.

Many people throughout the world have started taking a vaccination to help prevent themselves from catching mycoplasma pneumonia. Getting the vaccine could be the best thing that you could do especially for the elderly or even for people that have a weak immune system.

This type of vaccine is also highly recommended for people that work in a hospital where people that come in with mycoplasma pneumonia can spread from a cough or even a sneeze. This nasty little germ can spread and affect several people.

So talk with your local physician and see if the vaccination is right for you!

Cause of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

Several doctors throughout their career has treated thousands of people who have suffered from mycoplasma pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumonia is commonly a mild type of pneumonia that generally effects different age groups ranging from the younger to adults that forty years of age. A wide variety of studies have suggested that at least 15-50% of the patients that are suffering from pneumonia is due to have the mycoplasma type.

A person that is at the highest risk for mycoplasma pneumonia is generally the people that work or live in a crowded area. The type of people that work in schools or even when your child attends schools, although several people who come in contact with the mycoplasma pneumonia do not have any recognizable risk factors at first.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is considered to be one of the most common caused of community acquired pneumonia throughout the world. This type of sickness causes lower and upper respiratory problems in all different age groups. Summer time temperate climates tend to cause numerous cases of mycoplasma pneumonia. Even though summer time is not the only time of the year that this category of pneumonia can approach a person.

When all the nasty bacteria infect your lungs then the mycoplasma pneumonia settles in. This horrible organism that is in your respiratory tract can hang around for several weeks.

At your doctors visit your doctor might request that you have some laboratory studies performed to identify that it is for sure mycoplasma pneumonia. Not only might your physician want you to have the lab work but he or she might also want you to have a chest x-ray or if your case of mycoplasma pneumonia is really bad then he or she might request for you to have a high-resolution CT scan.

Once your doctor has reviewed all the test from the lab and/or radiology departments he or she might want addition test such as a culture. It could take up to 7 days or longer for any results to appear that is why it is so hard for a doctor to request these types of test because the results are not instantly.

So when your doctor notices that all the infection is being caused by the bacterium then they can prescribe you the appropriate antibiotics to help get rid of all your symptoms. You might also experience bronchitis or pharyngitis when you are suffering from this horrible illness.

What is the Best Treatment for Mycoplasma Pneumonia?

Do you think that you just have a common cold or flu? You could be wrong. Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most common types of pneumonia that is generally known to have the same symptoms as a cold. However, with mycoplasma pneumonia your symptoms will just linger on until it is treated. Causing you a lot of misery.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a very horrible type of bacteria that can continue to worsen if you do not seek medical treatment. Therefore, you should consider going to your local emergency department if you start experiencing the certain symptoms. If you have a progressive cough for more than 3 weeks it should not be left unattended. Sometimes your complications may tend to need urgent attention so do not fail to seek medical assistance immediately.

If you wait and go to your local physician he or she might prescribe you an antibiotic to help reduce the length that you might have to suffer from this horrible mycoplasma bacteria. There are several different types of antibiotics that your physician might prescribe.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotics that helps to eliminate the growth of bacteria. Azithromycin also known as Zithromax is a very common antibiotics that most people are prescribed. It is a very effective medication that fights against the mycoplasma infection. Clarithromycin is another type of antibiotics that helps reduce the growth of the bacteria, also Doxcycline is a highly recommended prescription that treats the mycoplasma bacteria.

Since mycoplasma pneumonia is a very difficult infection, an over-the-counter medication will not cure your symptoms. Your physician might allow you to take an over-the-counter medicine to help reduce your fever and other symptoms but for the infection part it will require a stronger form of medication.

Your physician might also recommend that you spend a couple of nights in the hospital and let someone monitor your progress and receive certain forms of treatments besides oral medications. So do not be alarmed if your doctor states that he or she is going to admit you in for observation!

Depending on your age and medical condition will help to determine what type of treatment your physician will require you to have. Be sure that you drink lots of fluids to help stay hydrated so that your body will be able to help fight against this awful infection. Coughing as much as you can will also help to keep your lungs clear from all the phlegm. If you are a smoker it is highly recommended that you avoid cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. The best treatment for yourself is to make sure that your body gets plenty of rest so that you can recover faster!